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Reported from a banned conference in the Soviet Union using acoustic couplers – 1989

How do you as a freelance journalist report on a daily basis from Latvia, then the Soviet Union, before the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the conference is banned and surrounded by tanks, when the only working telephone is in the police station and when there is no fax? Easy. Make friends with the Latvian police chief who hates the Russians - and you'll need an acoustic coupler. What is that?

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The acoustic coupler converts a laptop's digital data into analog tones that beep like a fax. A cable is plugged into the computer's serial port, and at the other end the telephone receiver is pressed into two suction cups.

The cable for the computer's serial port.

Press firmly so that as little ambient noise as possible disturbs you - and then hope that the analogue telephone connection is reasonably good. The telephone receiver was used to send and receive. The transfer rates were between 300 and 2.400 bit/s. Today we are talking about a gigabit, thousands of times faster. Back then it would have taken an hour to download a song as an mp3. But mp3 didn't exist yet.

A standard rotary dial telephone, handset and acoustic coupler. “Ahhh, a modem, but analog,” says a visitor to the Berlin Story Bunker.

The probability that the Russians were somehow on the line so that someone could listen in was relatively high. That's why making phone calls wasn't so popular. It was also about protecting the Latvian police officers. You could have heard the beeping, but that wasn't a very common technique. In addition, the colleagues on the other side, i.e. at the taz, were not prepared for telephone reporting. There was no recording device and no one knew shorthand.

It was different twenty years earlier at Springer-Verlag: When Benno Ohnesorg was shot by the police officer and Stasi informant Karl-Heinz Kurras on June 2, 1967, the Morgenpost journalist reported Michael Müller sends his ongoing reports to the editorial team by telephone through. A secretary took shorthand. But Müller had to keep queuing in the pub with the telephone because he was not the only journalist.

Back to Latvia. A Latvian environmental group hosted a conference on pollution in the Baltic Sea in June 1989. As a freelance journalist, you always have to go where the employed correspondents aren't. I also felt like there was more to it than that. Around a hundred participants came to the Baltic Sea Conference, most of them from Western Europe, over thirty from the Federal Republic alone, and two from the Arche from East Berlin. One of the two, Matthias, told me that he was surprised that he was sometimes allowed to go to conferences outside the GDR, so he got a visa and a permit, but sometimes not, without it making any sense to him. It didn't take long until the Wall came down and after the Stasi files were opened it turned out that the other person, Falk, was the Stasi spy. Only if he could accompany Matthias would he be able to leave the country.

The flag of Latvia is hoisted on June 20, 1989 at the conference venue, Edole Castle. It had previously been consecrated in the church and was carried in a procession by young people in traditional costume. A massive and courageous provocation by the Latvian environmental and independence movement in the highly armed Soviet Union.

On May 4, 1990, Latvia declared independence. On March 18, 1990, the Latvian Popular Front had won 131 of the 199 seats in parliament, even though the Latvian population was only (still) 52 percent. Many Russians in Latvia also wanted independence.

It became clear right from the start that it wasn't just about the Baltic Sea. A Latvian flag was blessed in the church, which was brought to the conference location in a procession with young people in Latvian costume and ceremoniously hoisted. You couldn't really provoke the Russians any more. And yet: The place to which they were invited was considered a restricted Russian area. The participants only found out about this over time. Who would even think that such a thing exists? No barracks or missile silos could be seen anywhere.

Back in 1989, Edole was like a youth hostel. Today you can book on Booking as edoles-pils. “Ēdoles Pils welcomes you in a 13th-century castle with lake views and a park full of walking paths. It is located in Ēdole in the Courland Region, 42 km from Ventspils”.

But the Latvians' provocations against the Soviet leadership in Riga and Moscow went even further. The Interior Ministry banned the conference and the local (Latvian) police chief was asked to deliver the ban. He did this dutifully, but let it be known that there had been no specific instructions on how to implement the ban. The Interior Ministry buses that were supposed to pick up the conference participants left without having accomplished anything. A tour of ecological hotspots was accompanied by local police vehicles with flashing lights so that the bus could drive back to the conference location. How dangerous was all of this? Hard to say. On the one hand, the Interior Ministry couldn't actually lose face and should have had its way, but on the other hand, there were so many Western foreigners there and, on top of that, all the signals coming from Moscow were unclear. That was probably the reason why the Ministry of Defense set the tanks in motion, but kept them far away from the conference site.

The situation reminded me a little of the GDR: environmental groups and political opposition in general were a bunch. But the Latvian Greens seemed more national or nationalistic to me. It was only in the interviews that I realized that Stalin had tens of thousands of Latvians deported to Siberia in 1949, that a large number of them died there, and that Latvia was brutally Russified. In Western Europe this was not perceived that way in the post-war period.

The Sony Walkman Professional in broadcast quality. An expensive purchase, but much more comfortable than the Uher Report device from before. Plus the classic Sennheiser MD421 microphone. Good for radio, but also for the Beatles and Rolling Stones. I recorded a total of twelve cassettes, interviews and original sounds.

My recordings with interviews as the basis for radio reports fill twelve cassettes. That was also tricky: On the one hand, it was about conveying what the Latvians wanted to express, how they saw the environmental destruction caused by Russian industry. But they also worked to become an independent state again, free of Russians. If these tapes had been taken away from me, it could have put the interviewees in great danger. This happened to me in the 1970s when British intelligence took away recordings of interviews with Irish people fighting against the British occupation in Northern Ireland. However, I was lucky in Latvia and was able to get the tapes out of the country without any problems.

The police chief was my age and also had three children. We rowed and swam together on one of the beautiful lakes. The fields smelled of fresh hay. The forest clearings smelled of wild strawberries. I could understand that Bismarck liked to hunt from Edole Castle. In 1989 it was more of a youth hostel. Today there is a hotel in the beautifully renovated property.

I don't remember why I always had to come to the station after 17 p.m. with all my equipment. Laptop, cable, acoustic coupler. The boss dialed personally, then I was able to transfer and watched the green flashing suspiciously. If it flashed red, the transmission had to be repeated. Manfred Kriener and Gerd Rosenkranz from the taz eco editorial team were pleased about the exclusive reports. They were so enthusiastic that I was then employed at the taz. I, the lucky pig, moved from Münster to Berlin. But: After three months, the women's editorial team said that parity had not yet been achieved and that I had to leave. Three children to look after? No issue. Feminism came first. But I already had a job in the European Parliament and was able to take stock of the environmental situation in the GDR almost immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall in the spring of 1990. My contact with Matthias and, through him, with the environmental groups in the GDR was the basis for this tour.

The police chief and the conference organizers got along well, or perhaps they knew each other and the whole thing was a set-up against the Russians. The group was initially unable to go on a tour of environmental offenders, but then was able to do so with a police escort and flashing lights so that the buses could drive back to the conference location. Another provocation by the Latvian police against the Soviet leadership in Riga. There was no telling how such an act of disobedience would end. As it later turned out, the conference location was largely surrounded by Russian tanks. Neither the police chief nor the organizers wanted to worry us with this knowledge. You can read what the conference was really about in my five articles for the taz, below.

What do you do with such an acoustic coupler? Only a messie can pick up something like that. Guys like me. What luck. Because today exactly this acoustic coupler is an exhibit in the “Germany 1945 to Today” museum in the Berlin Story Bunker. It's about the time when the new media emerged in the 1970s: city newspapers, the "Information for the dissemination of missing news", the Amos in the Ruhr area and independent publishers such as Elephant Press and finally the taz. Young visitors stand in front of this showcase for quite a long time. It takes time for them to understand how this technology worked.

The author in Edole with a laptop, a photo taken by photographer Maris Bogustovs, who accompanied the conference.

Four reports from the Baltic Sea Conference in June 1989 from Latvia/Soviet Union for the taz as well as another report on the environmental situation

Tuesday 20 June 1989 from Ēdole, Latvia, Soviet Union

An Delegation of 35 German environmentalists in the Soviet Union stands in for ID cardSung from the conference location. The Latvian one "Club in defense of the environment”. zu an international one Make decisions across the Baltic Sea on, sooner or later real ones Environmental basic meeting. 35 (West-) Deutsche came, to Environmentalist from Sweden, Finland, Holland, the U.S, the GDR and the other Baltic states.

An Wgeese to them Visit Gorbachev in Germany, two days after delegation Riga in Bremen was, is coming It was a scandal in Latvia.

It all started so well: in front of one Year trance itself Activists for "Action Conference North Sea" from Bremen in Leningrad [St. Petersburg again today] reported the Latvian Environmental Club. Because of the German-Soviet dawn one reckoned itself Best Opportunities for them Konferenz out of. If es aReally though would work, stand until few Days in the stars. First trouble appeared with the visas. they were so in the short term granted, dass they direkt from for Soviet message Had to be brought to the airport.

In Arrived Leningrad war not clear, like es weitergehen would. A bus brought its general Group in the night zu Monday to Riga. 500 Kilometer along the Baltic coast, 500 Kilometer Demonstration of environmental destruction: pine trees and spruces, the want to print their individual Äth leave hanging, needled trees, shortened Crowns: all signs for acid in the air and in the Rain. The chimneys for chemical Manufacturing smoked like in a propagandaffilms by Sergei ironteen indem Kapitalisten with cylinders the auftret and the working class starving.

Arrived in Riga always stood or not fixed, ob the international conference of the club for Defense of the environment in which Conference hall etwa 150 Kilometer from Riga remote in Ēdole was allowed to take place. The approval by thiefehrden was since Monatas requested. In Riga and in its seaside resort Jurmela itself even height Kader from Partei and administration against the dirt in the Baltics strong. The Mayor pointed out auf the decline of the Tourism there, the too serious one economic follow. Most of the big ones Cities don't have any or not working Sewage treatment plants, the bacteriumien pollution for Baltic Sea lies here e.gtwenty times and Normal, bathe is because of the risk of infection living length forbidden.

Am Conference location in one old Castle of German Barons Bear the organizers had now for more than a hundred Participants everything prepared - noe Klunity orhne statehe Help. Because without from Staat should everything run. It is this its general first conference, too the "only" Environmental organization invites. smaller Make decisions gab es last year on Invitation of Soviet Writers' Association and in this year between leaders of the Greens and for CPSU near Gorleben. This time it's the base's turn.

On the way to Conference castle the novel the bus for German delegation from for Police vorübergehend gestoppt, weil it is um a for foreigners still nicht approved area act. Six Storks or on the goodchbarten field observed this action.

The conflict between the Soviet concrete heads in Riga and for ecologically oriented reform group mirrors sich in this whole one Inhibitionsweet contrary. Because im Hintreason The environmental conference calls for independence for WHITErule Staaten, the nach the Hitler-Stalin pact came to the Soviet Union and now Autonomy demand. They called itself Auch on the previous one Wgeese signed in Bonn between Gorbachev and Kohl Agreement, its general das Sunderlines the right of peoples to self-determination.

The bus could after some back and forth the police control the passier, but now, on the first Tags the conference, the time has come :Das Latvian Ministry of Interior fordert das Ende for conference. Wwhile I'm here reports, makes below the police in the house wide. Under ständiger tension kam its general conference though in Corridor, but koncentre can himself hier under this sword of Damocles of the impending ban, no one.

Wieland gable

Wednesday, 21th June 1989

Wednesday, 21th June 1989

The Baltic Sea conference near Riga in Latvia was banned today. The local police chief had to deliver this news from the Interior Ministry. But he has no other task than to communicate this. Although ministry buses have already pulled up to pick up the participants of the environmental protection conference, the conference will continue following a decision by the more than a hundred international guests from Scandinavia, the GDR and the Federal Republic.

Once again the contradictions within the party apparatus become clear: the Latvian Council of Ministers refuses to discuss the problem of this conference at its meeting today. However, on television it is topic number one. The point is that the conference center of the “Club for the Defense of the Environment” is located in an area that is not yet open to tourists. Many of these zones are now open, the military projects have long been known and are of no importance to environmentalists. But the old guard sits in the Latvian Council of Ministers and throws sticks between Gorbachev's Perestroika wherever they can. The problem with the conference location is just an excuse. This was also made clear by the local police chief, who fully supported the goals of the conference, discussed with the guests as if at a political event and showed no willingness to take any measures. He sees himself as the last link in a series of unpleasant disputes between reformers and the conservative Council of Ministers. There is no danger for the conference participants. At most, there could be problems with visas in the future.

The Council of Ministers will not engage in discussions because the environmental and independence movements are closely linked. Baltic environmentalists say that industrial environmental pollution like in the era of early capitalism is only due to the fact that all decisions are made in Moscow and by Russians.

For the environmental movement, independence also means the ability to determine one's own resources and industry. The police have now signaled that they want to take care of the legalization of the guests' stay in this remote part of the Baltics. Whether she can do that at all and whether she is formally responsible for it is rather doubtful here. The fight between two lines in the party is apparently being waged with tough tactics.

Last status on Thursday, June 22, 1989: A tour of conference participants to ecologically interesting places in Latvia must be canceled. The local police guarantee that the conference will continue to take place at the conference site, against the declared wishes of the Latvian Ministry of the Interior. However, if the delegates leave the conference venue, it is not certain whether they will be able to return.

Wieland Gable

Wieland Gable

Friday, 23. June 1989 to taz

The Baltic Sea Conference near Riga running trotz Bans continue. Ölocal Police verweigert its intervention

The international conference on the protection of the Baltic Sea near Riga continues despite a ban by the [Soviet] Latvian Interior Ministry. The participants from the Scandinavian countries, the GDR, the Federal Republic and the Baltic states decided yesterday to ignore the ban. The district administrator of the Kuldiga district and the regional police assured the conference participants that there would be no restrictions on site. The police will not be deployed and the administration supports the goals of the environmentalists, explained the two people responsible. They discussed with the conference participants for more than two hours. Problems could only arise if foreign guests apply for visas for the USSR again soon. Interior Ministry buses that were supposed to pick up the conference participants left without having accomplished anything. A tour to ecologically sensitive points in Latvia planned for today, Friday, was canceled because the district administration could not guarantee that a return to the conference location would be possible.

The head of the district administration, Alexander Gudmann, blamed Moscow for Latvia's ecological misery. Too little of the export profits remains in the country to further develop the economy and convert agriculture to organic farming.

The Interior Ministry justified the ban on the conference in the Kuldiga district by saying that this region was not yet open to tourism. The district administration, on the other hand, had repeatedly called for the region, which is rich in forests and lakes, to be opened to tourism.

There are no secret military projects here. The background to the conflict between the region and the headquarters in Riga is Gorbachev's new policy. There are conservatives in Riga who are putting every possible obstacle in the way of perestroika. The international conference is a thorn in the side of your industry-friendly policy. Environmentalists complain about the dieback of forests in the Baltics due to acid rain and the pollution of the Baltic Sea due to a lack of sewage treatment plants. The background is also the Baltic states' efforts for independence from the Soviet Union. At the local level, this claim fell on fertile ground. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were independent states before they were occupied by the Soviet Union through the Hitler-Stalin Pact.

Apparently the population is behind the environmental movement. The conference was made possible through financial donations from collective farms and food donations from farmers and fishermen in the region. At the end of this first international conference organized from below in the Soviet Union, there will be a network that brings together all environmental initiatives of the states bordering the Baltic Sea.

Wieland gable

final report an the taz, discontinued Sonday, 24. June 1989 from Riga, 15 pm

Baltic Sea Conference ends reported Provocation towards Moscow.

Policeboss goes with me Delegates bathe. Baltic Sea-Nnetwork founded.

Baltic Sea Conference ends with provocation against Moscow.

Police chief goes swimming with delegates. Baltic Sea Network founded.

What does the police chief have under there? A hundred pairs of eyes were on him as he took off his pants. Clever. The swimming trunks. At the end of the Baltic Sea Conference in Edole near Riga, the conference participants went swimming together with the local police - in a fairytale forest lake in Latvia. The ecological tour, which was initially canceled, still took place. And under police protection and blue lights. A huge provocation towards Moscow. Latvia is Latvian and is not controlled by Moscow. That should be demonstrated here. The contradictions have now become clearer. The “Club for the Defense of the Environment” no longer only demands the Latvian people's right to self-determination within the Soviet Union, but also the independence of the Baltic states. At the opening of the conference last Monday, the Latvian flag was blessed in the church, brought in a procession to the conference castle and ceremoniously hoisted.

The conference was banned by Latvian Prime Minister Vilnis-Edwins Bresis, at least at the venue. The “Association for the Defense of the Environment” VAK is legal, but not very popular because of its radical stance on ecological and patriotic issues. The regional police of the Kuldiga region were gathered at the meeting site, but refused to intervene because there was no criminal activity. Prime Minister Bresis should now have sent a special unit, but in view of the international publicity he did not want an escalation. The new Latvian Soviet will be elected in September. Kuldiga is not a restricted military area, but is closed to tourists by Moscow. The Latvians do not accept this restriction and are using the conference to make up ground. Not all German participants can cope with the affront against Moscow.

Lenin concluded a treaty with Latvia that guaranteed the state's independence. “There is a serious hope that in the foreseeable future we will have close economic relations with Latvia, which will be useful to us in the exchange of goods with Western Europe,” said the report of the Council of People's Commissars of December 1920 (LW 31/486). But after the Hitler-Stalin pact, the Red Army occupied the country. More than 60.000 people died within a year, every family was affected. Only now are the mass graves being opened, the memory and the hatred are breaking out.

The conference to protect the Baltic Sea, which was co-organized by the Bremen “North Sea Action Conference”, did not follow a streamlined scientific approach. The focus was on human relationships with the environmental movement in Scandinavia, the GDR (Arche) and the Federal Republic. The overwhelmingly warm hosts and delegates, who were concerned about the well-being of the guests, came together on Midsummer Night, the solstice and fertility festival, to the highlight of the conference.

Latvia's Green Movement is trying to break away from the ties of exiled Latvians who work with people like Hans Graf Huyn, the CSU's eastern policy spokesman, and Heinrich Lummer, who sees the Republicans as a possible ally of the CDU. “According to our green criteria, there is no difference in growth ideology between East and West,” says a conference working paper. The Latvian environmentalists will soon receive support from their West German colleagues through a water and nutrition laboratory. The next Baltic Sea Conference will take place in the Federal Republic.

Addendum based on my notes: At the weekend the Ukrainian liberation movement met in Riga, Latvia and put together a program against the “red terror” in Ukraine.

Even nature cannot conjure up healthy fish from a sewer

Birth deformities, forest dieback, poisoned water in the Baltics.

The radioactive contamination is ten times higher than that of the atomic bomb tests.

“We don’t want to have to be ashamed in front of the other Baltic Sea neighbors,” says the mayor of Jurmala, the seaside town near Riga. “The pollutant load must be halved within five years. But how? The problem is the centralized management economy. The money we make doesn't stay here. Just the dirt. Pollution is our main problem. If we don't get environmental problems under control, we won't be able to develop tourism or control our economy in any other way."

Riga was the first stop on the ecological tour to which the Latvian “Club for the Defense of the Environment” together with the “North Sea Action Conference” had invited. Contrary to the Latvian Interior Ministry's ban, the police and Kuldiga district council had placed the “Conference for the Protection of the Baltic Sea” under their protection. Their motto: All power to the councils, namely the Latvian ones and not the headquarters in Moscow or the Latvian capital Riga. So far, the regional administration has had no opportunity to defend itself against industrialization. But perestroika from above and the environmental movement from below are putting pressure on the rigid ministries.

Wieland Gable

The Baltic states are polluting the Baltic Sea

The Riga region is considered the Baltic Sea's single largest polluter. “It could be a little more” seems to be the motto, because there is a lot of pollution. Bathing beaches are closed due to untreated sewage and tourism is declining. Coli bacteria as a result of fecal discharge can be easily detected. However, how high the chemical contamination is remains to be seen.

State data is not published. That's why the West German environmentalists want to make a laboratory available to their Latvian colleagues. The drinking water for Riga is polluted by the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in the cities of Incukalns and Olaine. The Lielupe River, which carries toxic waste to the Baltic Sea, is contaminated by a paper factory in the small town of Sloka. In Riga, air pollution from heavy industry exceeds permissible levels twenty times. The number one source of dirt is once again the industry in the city of Olaine. But the 500 kilometer long road along the Baltic Sea coast between Leningrad and Riga also gives the impression of a forest dieback educational trail: tinsel syndrome in pines and spruces, they let their branches hang, they needles, their linear growth is shortened, they have shrunken crow's nest crowns. All of these are clear signs of acid rain. Even the fast-growing birch trees near factories look like they've been doused with phosphorus. In addition to this homemade water and air pollution, the town of Baldone is home to a repository of nuclear and chemical waste from East and West.

Birth defects and allergies

The port city of Ventspils is contaminated by a chemical factory and refinery owned by the American Armand Hammer, Occidental Petroleum. He made a million dollars available for the earthquake victims in Armenia. Arvantds Ulme, head of the “Club for the Defense of the Environment,” demands that he should make the next million easy for Ventspils. A state commission has found limit values ​​exceeded by up to eighty times the Soviet standards.

During oil and gas loading, 2.500 tons of vaporized (gaseous) fractions escape into the air every year. The construction of an oil and ammonia pipeline and a nitrogen factory is planned. Half a million tons of potash salts have so far polluted the city: 600 trees have died. As always, the weakest are hit hardest: birth defects have tripled in the last ten years, pregnancy complications have increased tenfold, and skin allergies and bronchial asthma in children are also common.

There are also military dangers for coastal residents: phosphorus bombs have been exploded in the Baltic Sea in recent years. But the solid components wash up on the shore, look like amber and cause severe chemical burns. Baltic Sea fishermen complain: “Since the end of the 70s, fish diseases have been increasing, especially we are seeing more ulcers and fin rot. However, the consumer can only detect the diseases in fresh fish. Most of it is processed.” The Baltic Sea fishermen fear for their existence.

One of the little-noticed causes of fish diseases is radioactivity. Today there are no fish swimming in the Baltic Sea that are not contaminated with radioactivity. Sea fish has always been considered a clean food, even when pollution on land became a problem. But even nature cannot conjure up clean fish from a sewer. Because of the chemical and radioactive contamination, (Baltic) sea fish is no longer safe for pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and small children. While the Environment Committee of the European Parliament recommends a guideline value of a maximum of 5 becquerels of cesium per kilo of food for the groups mentioned, according to the Federal Health Office's monthly report from October 1988, sea fish is actually contaminated with an average of 9 Bq/kg of cesium.

The eastern Baltic Sea is contaminated with radioactivity due to above-ground atomic bomb tests. There are precise figures from these years that allow a comparison with the pollution caused by Chernobyl. From 1961 to 1963, at the height of atomic bomb testing, strontium-90 levels in the Baltic Sea tripled from 15 Bq/m3 to 44 Bq/m3. Strontium is considered 137 times more dangerous than cesium. The level of cesium-15 increased fivefold over the same period, from 3 Bq/m78 to 3 Bq/mXNUMX.

After above-ground bomb tests were stopped in 1963, radioactivity fell again to 1977 Bq/m26 for both radionuclides by 3. At that time, the contamination of cod was on average 4 Bq/kg cesium.

The German Hydrographic Institute writes about its investigations after Chernobyl: “Since the Baltic Sea is almost an inland body of water, it must be expected that the radioactivity that is deposited here will remain in the sea for long periods of time. According to measurements by the Federal Fisheries Research Center, activity in the North Sea is between one and ten Bq of cesium per kilogram of fish. In the northern Baltic Sea, somewhat higher activity is to be expected after the Chernobyl reactor accident, which could also exceed 100 Bq/kg.

These would be extremely high values ​​that, according to current measurements, have not (yet) been achieved. The cesium content of cod, herring, mackerel, turbot, plaice and flounder in the Baltic Sea is up to 10 Bq/kg cesium. But: Fish are at the bottom of the food chain in the sea; they feed on plankton, in which radioactivity accumulates. This means that the fish may be subjected to even higher levels of stress.

The highest activity in the Baltic Sea was measured in the area of ​​the Aaland Sea between Sweden and the Baltics. This corresponds to the high fallout in central Sweden, where exposure to contaminated reindeer is known. On the islands of Gotland and Öland the cesium content was 890 mBq/l and in Lake Bothn between 500 and 700 mBq/l. Surprisingly, there are no comparable values ​​to the figures before Chernobyl in the currently published water measurements. Why becomes clear when you do the math: 700 mBq/l is 700 Bq/m3, which is ten times more than the maximum exposure of 78 Bq/m3 before Chernobyl at the time of the above-ground atomic bomb tests. It takes 30 years for cesium to be half broken down. 30 years is also the period in which the water in the Baltic Sea is circulated.

But the Baltic Sea is not yet clean. Because the accumulations in the soil and in microorganisms are not reversed by the exchange of water. So all the dirt will remain in the Baltic Sea for decades.

Wieland gable